Ducks: Raising the Inland Varieties


Duck-raising and balut production are often associated with Pateros and other bayside areas. But, inland duck raising can be as profitable as riverside duck-raising, especially with some duck varieties that prefer land to water.

Ducks are easier to raise than chickens; they gain weight easily and are more resistant to sickness and disease.

They can be raised commercially for their eggs, to produce the ever popular balut, or for their meat made famous by roast Peking duck. If produced on a large scale, we could cut down on our import of ducks from the US, Singapore, and Hong kong.

Varieties. The native or Pateros duck known as Itik is the most popular locally because it used for the balut industry. Although smaller than imported breeds, they lays eggs frequently but do not hatch them. Thus, they are called non-sitters. They are black and gray in color, while some are barred bulek). Others are brown or have white feather mixed with black. the male itik can be easily distinguished because its head is coarser and its body heavier than the female's. They emit shrill and high-pitched sounds, while females emit low-pitched quacking sounds. Males also have curly feather on top of their tails, while the female tail feather lie flat or close to their bodies.

The Khaki Camphell duck, an extremely active type, does not swim often and swim often and lays as many as 300 or more eggs in a year.

The Peking duck is raised for its meat. It is often mistake for goose because its body stands upright. It is relatively docile and is a good layer. They are saleable at 2 to 3 months old.

Another variety is the Muscovy duck, easily identified by the small "bulges" on its face, the red swellings along the eyes and above the base of the bill. Known as the pato real or bibe, it is heavy and plump with yellow skin. Because its flesh is of higher quality than the average duck, it is best for home consumption and for marketing. Muscovy also prefer to stay on land, feeling on any vegetation. Thus, they require less care. Their feeding need only be supplement with palay or corn. Breeders, however, complain that this variety habitually wanders away from its breeding place. To remedy this problem, the flight feather is on of its wings should be clipped regularly to prevent it from staying so far.

The Muscovy duck has three varieties: The white, the colored and the club blue.

Housing. Provide shelter for ducks in groups and separate them according to age.

A native duck house can be made from bamboo and nipa - on a room with three sides closed. A portion of the front side is left open as a door. The should be built facing the lake or river and should be high enough to let a man stand inside. A hundred ducks will need a house 4 by 4 meters and 3 meters high.

Cover the earth floor with clean rice hull or straw 3 to 4 inches thick. Make sure it is much higher than the surrounding ground.

Separate ducks pens from one another by bamboo fences low enough for caretaker to transfer from one to another. The fence should extend to enclose the water's shallow edge to prevent the ducks from straying too far.

If the ducks are to be raised where there is no body of water, provide a small pond where they can swim and get exercise.

Feeding troughs should be provided large enough to prevent the scattering of food.

Provide litters 3 to 5 inches deep on the floor to absorb dampness. For young ducklings, use rice hull or litter because it absorbs moisture faster and does not tangle with duckling's feet. Change liter as often as possible to prevent disease and parasites. When the surface litter becomes dirty and damp, rake it to expose and dry the wet portion.

Breeding. Select only vigorous ducks for breeding when they are about eight weeks old, and then again at 4 and 5 months old, before placing them in breeding pens. Drakes or male ducks should be raised separately from female ducks. Mate them when they are at least seven months old to ensure good offspring. Drakes should be the same age or a months older than the females ducks. One drake may be mated to 6 to 10 ducks.

In the case of non-setters, their eggs may be hatched by a setting hen, at a minimum of eight duck eggs in one setting. Everytime the hen leaves the nest, sprinkle the eggs with lukewarm water because duck eggs need a little moisture.

Itik eggs hatch in 28 days, The bibe or Muscovy can hatch 12 to 15 of its own eggs in one sitting in about 33 days. For large-scale duck-raising, the eggs of non-sitters such as itik will need a large incubation hut or hatchery called the balutan. This may be a simple one-room house made of bamboo and nipa. The floor should be air of hard eight, its wall closed to avoid drafts of air. An opening must be left for the door.

Eggs for hatching should be thick-shelled, fair in size, and not older than five days. Test them by snapping your fingers hard enough on the shell. Eggs with shells that break easily should not be included.

Place the duck eggs in the balutan inside abaca cloth bags in batches of 100 to 125 eggs each. Then , place them in deep bamboo basket incubators, a maximum of ten layers of eggs bags in one basket.

Beforehand, heat bags of palay in iron vat (kawa for one whole day to a temperature of about 43oC (109oF). Then, place these bags in between the bamboo basket incubators.

Leave the eggs in the balutan for 28 days. After 20 days, the palay bags need not be heated anymore.

when using a kerosene or electric incubator for hatching, maintain a temperature of 100oF and a humidity of 55 to 60 per cent. A pan of water kept at the bottom of the incubators will kept maintain the right humidity.

Do not hatch duck and chicken eggs in one incubator.

During the incubation period, turn the eggs at least 3 to 4 times a day to make them more "hatchable."

After 28 days, store the hatching eggs in a cool room and place them in airy baskets or trays. Clean them with a slightly moist rag. Then, wait for them to hatch.

Care of ducklings. Raising duckling is almost similar to raising chicks, except that the former grows faster. Ducklings start eating one day after hatching.

After removing them from the incubators, transfer them into boxes in a draft-free and rat-proof room. If boxes are not available, raise them on straw-covered floors or woven bamboo mats or sawali. Provide them with heat during the first week and during cold weather. Use electric bulbs or kerosene lamps.

Determining the sex. Press the region of the crop inward and with two fingers, press the vent slightly outward. The male organ will protrude, while that the female will remain flat.

Feeding. Mash feed for duckling is usually composed of corn, soybean meal, fish meal, dried whey, rice bran with oyster shell and bone meal with vitamin mineral supplements.

Feed the duckling with wet starter mash eight weeks, or moistened boiled rice for the first three weeks, 4 or 5 times a day. Start giving water in drinking troughs on the second day.

On the fifth day, add finely chopped small shrimps to the boiled rice. Increase their feed as the duckling grow older.

At the age of one month, feed them with tiny fresh water snails and boiled unhulled rice or palay.

Give only enough feed to be consumed quickly as they tend to spoil when the left long in the troughs.

After the fifth week, give green feed such as finely chopped camote leaves and kang kong three time a day.

Processed pellets for ducks are available in the market. They are composed of the necessary feeding nutrients,

S T A R T E R - R A T I O N
(For duck 1 day to 6 weeks old)
Yellow ground corn............40%
1st class rice bran...........15%
Copra meal....................4.5%
Soybean oil meal (44%)........20%
Fish meal (50%)...............10%
Ipil-ipil leaf meal........... 5%
Oyster shell powder........... 1%
Bone meal..................... 1%
Salt..........................0.5%


G R O W E R - R A T I O N
(For ducks more than 6 weeks old)
Yellow ground corn............45%
1st class rice bran...........15%
Copra meal....................4.5%
Soybean oil meal (44%)........15%
Fish meal (50%)...............10%
Ipil-ipil leaf meal........... 5%
Dried whey.................... 2%
Oyster shell powder........... 1%
Bone meal..................... 1%
Salt..........................0.5%

L A Y E R - R A T I O N
(For ducks in the egg-laying stage)
Yellow corn............40%
rice bran..............20%
Soybean oil meal (44%).10%
Copra meal.............10%
Fish meal (50%)........7.5%
Ipil-ipil leaf meal....5%
Oyster shell powder....4%
Bone meal..............1%
Salt...................0.5%

Care for manure ducks. Do not disturb ducks unnecessarily especially during egg production. Keep away dogs and other stray animals.

Ducks usually eat grains, insect and green feeds. Do not allow spoiled feed within their reach to avoid poisoning.

Although ducks are more resistant to disease than chickens, they are also susceptible to avian pest. Thus, immunization is advisable. When they isolate themselves from the flock and refuse to eat, remove them at once. Keep them in separate confinement to prevent disease from spreading, Consult a veterinarian. It is best to give prophylactic agent or vaccine against disease when ducks are still healthy as a precaution measure.

Source: DOST, photo courtesy of www.mir.com.my

1 comment:

  1. Hi, I'm planning to start a duck farming business somewhere in Rizal. I'm planning to start with egg production initially. However I need to know of some people or farms selling ducks ready to lay eggs and the price of each.

    ReplyDelete

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