Home Based Processing of FISH and SHELLFISH FOOD PRODUCTS (Compiled)


FERMENTED PRODUCTS

PATIS and BAGOONG

Raw Material and Utensils:

fresh fish plastic basin
salt - coarse or semi-refined colander
wooden ladle
jars - wide mouth (garapon - plastic or glass)
cheesecloth
rubber bands

Procedure:

1. Use fresh raw materials such as dilis, galunggong, tamban, tunsoy, or small shrimps (alamang, acetes sp.).
2. Mix thoroughly 1 part salt to 3 parts washed and drained fish (by weight). Transfer into wide mouth jars and cover with cheesecloth bound by rubber band.
3. Allow to ferment for at least six months or longer until it develops the characteristic flavor and aroma of bagoong. Stir once a week for the first 2 months, then once a month thereafter.
4. For fish sauce or patis, continue fermentation until the solids settle and liquid collects on top of the mixture. (4 - 6 months more)
5. Decant the sauce and filter. Set aside as premium extract.
6. To the fish residue, add an equal amount (by weight) of saturated brine solution (one part salt to two parts water by weight [1:2]) with 0.1% sodium benzoate (1 gram per kilogram brine) then let it age for 2-4 weeks.
7. The resulting sauce is drained and filtered to produce the 2nd extract.
8. The residue is again combined with an equal weight of saturated brine solution with 0.1% sodium benzoate and aged 2-4 weeks.
9. The resulting sauce is again filtered to produce the 3rd extract and the residue discarded.
10. The extracted patis is usually bottled while the bagoong may be bottled or canned.

Note: A commercial patis combination may be blended from the 1st, 2nd and 3rd extracts. See Table 1 as reference.


TABLE 1. QUALITY GRADES OF PATIS*

EXTRACT CATEGORY SPECIFICATION
1st SPECIAL 8% PROTEIN (minimum)
2nd REGULAR 4% PROTEIN (minimum)
3rd PATIS FLAVOR 1% PROTEIN (minimum)

*Source: Philippine National Standards for Fish Sauce


DRIED/SMOKED FISH PRODUCTS

DRIED FISH

Dried Whole Sardines or 'TUYO'

Procedure:

1. Wash fish with clean water to remove adhering dirt and drain.
2. Soak fish in 25% brine (1 part salt in 2 parts water) for about 3 hours or more depending on the size and sub-species of fish. (See Table 2)

TABLE 2. SOAKING TIME OF FISH IN 25% BRINE

Scientific Names Local Name Common Name Fish Length Soaking Time (hour)
Sardinella fimbriata tunsoy Fimbriated sardine 15 - 19 cm. 3
Sardinella longiceps tamban Indian sardine 15 - 22 cm. 3
Sardinella brachysoma lapad Deep-bodied herring 15 - 19 cm. 3
Sardinella tawilis tawilis Freshwater sardine 13 - 19 cm. 2 - 3
Sardinella albella silinyasi White sardine 5 - 8 cm. 2

3. Drain the fish and rinse with water to remove surface salt. Drain again.
4. Arrange or lay fish on drying trays skin down and dry under the sun or any suitable dryer until the moisture content is reduced to 40-45% (wet basis). This moisture content corresponds to fish that does not retain finger impressions when pressed at the thickest part of its body. The fish is turned over every 5 hours to effect uniform drying.
5. Allow the dried fish to 'sweat' or cool for at least 6 hours at room temperature by bringing the fish-filled trays into a well-ventilated room. Cover with nylon nets or screen mesh to ward off flies and other insects.
6. Pack the fish in wooden boxes of 25-kg capacity lined with 0.001-in thick polyethylene film and keep in cool and dry place. For retail packaging, pack the dried product in polyethylene bags of 0.002-inch thickness.
7. Packed dried fish maybe stored at room temperature (28°-30oC) for a week and longer at refrigerated temperatures (3°-5oC).

*Note: Other species that can be processed into dried whole fish is given in the table in Annex A.


DRIED SPLIT FISH OR 'DAING'

Procedure:

1. Wash fish with clean water to remove adhering dirt and drain.
2. Split fish into butterfly fillets from tip of head to tail and remove the gills and internal organs. Wash thoroughly to remove blood and traces of entrails.
3. Soak fish in brine with salt concentration and soaking time given below:

Scientific Names Local Name Common Name Brine Concentration Soaking Time (hour)
(%) Salt:H2O
Sillago sihama asuhos Banded whiting 20 1:4 1
Nemipterus taeoniopterus bisugo Threadfin bream 20 1:4 1
Caesio chrysozonus dalagang bukid Golden caesio 17.5 1:1.42 2
Decapterus macrosoma galunggong Shortfin/Round scad 20 1:4 1
Rastrelliger brachysomus hasa-hasa Short bodied mackerel 20 1:4 1.5
Sphyraena obtusata torsillo Striped baracuda 20 1:4 1.5
Mugil melinopterus kapak Black finned mullet 20 1:4 0.5

4. After soaking, drain the salted fish and rinse with tap water to remove surface salt. Drain again.
5. Arrange or lay fish on drying trays skin down and dry under the sun or in mechanical dryer at 40 to 45oC for the first 5 hours and at 50-60oC for the succeeding hours (5-10) until the product has a moisture content of 40-45% (wet basis).
6. Allow the dried fish to sweat or cool for at least 6 hours at room temperature.
7. Pack the dried products in bulk in clean wooden boxes and/or clean carton boxes lined with 0.001-in thick PE film. For retail packaging, pack dried fish at 200 or 250 grams/pack in 0.002-inch thick polyethylene (PE) plastic bags.
8. Store the packed dried product in a cool dry place or if possible at refrigerated conditions (3 - 5oC).


SMOKED FISH

Raw Material Equipment, Utensils & Supplies :

fresh fish weighing scale
coarse salt plastic basin
chopping boards
knives
katsa (for filtering salt)
plastic pail
wooden ladle
salinometer
nylon net, fine-mesh (to ward off flies)
bistay or titay (or improvised chicken wire)
kawa or kaldero
rigadera
stove (heavy duty - LPG or firewood)
charcoal or firewood
smokehouse
smoking materials - wood shavings or kusot (from hard woods)
pot holder, apron, hand towel
plastic bags (0.004" thickness)
plastic sealer

Procedure:

1. Clean the fish (see Annex B), eviscerate and wash thoroughly to remove remaining blood. Drain.
2. Soak the fish for 30 minutes in 15% salt solution (1 part salt to 3 parts water, previously dissolved and filtered thru cheesecloth) at the proportion of 1 part fish to 1 part brine. Drain and transfer into cooking trays or baskets.
3. Cook the fish in 15% salt solution (1 part salt to 3 parts water) for 3-5 minutes or until eyes turn white depending on the size of fish. Drain.
4. Arrange or lay cooked fish on smoking trays and sprinkle with water to remove surface salt. Dry for 30 minutes to 1 hour.
5. Hot smoke the fish in a suitable smokehouse at a temperature of 60-90oC until a golden brown color is attained. (30 minutes to 1 hour)
6. Cool the smoked fish at room or ambient temperatures (28°-30oC).
7. Pack the smoked product in plastic bags (polyethylene bags of 0.002-0.004-inch thickness).
8. Store the packed smoked fish at refrigerated condition (3°-5oC) or freezer for longer shelf life.

*Note: The table in Annex B shows the fish species commonly used for smoked fish production.

THERMALLY PROCESSED FISH PRODUCTS

SPANISH STYLE SARDINES

Ingredients (PER 8-OZ GLASS JAR OR 211 X 300 CAN:

dressed fish (tamban, tunsoy, silinyasi, tawilis) 170.0 grams
monosodium glutamate or vetsin (optional) 0.2 gram
whole black peppercorns 6 pcs
siling labuyo 3 pcs
bayleaf or laurel leaves 1 pc
carrots, sliced crosswise 2 - 3 pcs
sweet pickles, sliced crosswise 2 pcs

Utensils:

weighing scale dial thermometer
chopping board heavy duty gas stove
knife steamer
colander All-American brand pressure cooker or steam retort
plastic trays All-American manual or electric automatic can sealer (No. 225
salinometer or No. 225-F) (for cans)

Supplies:

glass jars, can, metal caps, plastic cap seals, labels

Procedure:

1. Wash the fish thoroughly. Remove the head, fins, and internal organs. Wash thoroughly to remove blood and traces of entrails.
2. Cut the fish transversely to fit the size of the container.
3. Soak fish in 60o salinometer brine (15 % salt solution) for 30 minutes. Drain and dry for 1-2 hours.
4. Fry the fish for 30 sec-1 min. Drain, cool, cut and trim to fit the container. (The frying process is optional and may be omitted if cans are used.)
5. Fill the cut fish into cans or glass jars. Fill-in weight is 170 ± 10g 211 x 300 can and for 8-oz glass jar.
6. Add other ingredients and pour enough pre-heated vegetable oil into each can leaving 1/6- to ¼-inch headspace.
7. Exhaust to an internal temperature of 82oC and seal. (Option: The oil may be preheated to 90oC prior to filling and sealing.)
8. Process or sterilize in a pressure cooker or a steam retort. (see table)

SCHEDULE OF PROCESS:

Can Size/Jar Size Temperature (oC) Pressure (psi) Processing Time (min)
211 x 300 can 121 15 90
8-oz glass jars 115.6 10 120

9. Cool cans under running water. Allow the glass jars to be air-cooled at room temperature.
10. Wash glass jars and cans to remove grease and grime, and dry.
11. Code, label and store at room temperature.

Note: Canned or bottled products should be held in stock for 15 days before distribution to allow equilibration of flavors and detect defects such as bulging in cans and bubbling in bottles.


SARDINE STYLE IN TOMATO SAUCE

Ingredients (PER 8-OZ GLASS JAR OR 211 X 300 CAN:

dressed fish (bangus, tunsoy, galunggong) 170-180 grams
sauce 60 grams
composed of:
tomato sauce 37.8 grams
tomato paste 12.6 grams
corn or vegetable oil 9.0 grams
hot pepper extract 0.7 mL
salt 1.0-2.0 grams

Mix the sauce ingredients and heat to 85oC with constant stirring then add to the fish.

Utensils:

weighing scale plastic trays dial thermometer
chopping board colander steamer
knife salinometer heavy duty gas stove
pressure cooker, All American brand

Procedure:

1. Scale fish and remove the head, fins, tail and internal organs.
2. Wash fish thoroughly to remove blood and other foreign matters.
3. Cut the fish transversely to fit the size of the container. Scrape off remaining blood vessels and black visceral linings.
4. Soak fish in 60o salinometer brine (15 % salt) for 30 minutes. Drain and dry for 1-2 hours.
5. Fry fish for 30 sec to 1 min. Drain, cut and trim. (The frying process may be omitted if cans are used.)
6. Fill the cut fish into cans or glass jars.
7. Fill with the heated sauce to 1/6-inch headspace from the brim of the container.
8. Exhaust by heating the filled cans/glass jars over steam or boiling water to an internal temperature of 85oC (about 30 minutes). Seal the cans/glass jars.
9. Process in a pressure cooker or a retort for one and a half (1½) hours at 121oC (15-psig) or 2 hours at 116oC (10-psig).
10. Cool cans under running water. Allow the glass jars to air-cool down to room temperature.
11. Wash cans and jars, dry, label and store.

How to prepare hot pepper extract:
Prepare by boiling red hot peppers (siling labuyo) of known weight in water (1 part pepper to 3 parts water) until soft. Pass the softened hot peppers through a strainer to remove skins and seeds. Restore the water that evaporated.


BANGUS, SALMON STYLE

Ingredients (PER 8-OZ GLASS JAR OR 211 X 300 CAN:

bangus, dressed 170-180 grams
2% brine

Utensils:

weighing scale plastic trays dial thermometer
chopping board colander steamer
knife salinometer heavy duty gas stove
pressure cooker - All American Standard

Procedure:

1. Scale the fish and remove the head, tail and internal organs.
2. Wash the fish thoroughly to remove blood and dirt.
3. Drain and cut transversely to fit the size of the can (scrape off the remaining blood and entrails).
4. Soak in 15% brine for 20 minutes. Drain.
5. Fill into cans/bottles and add 2% brine leaving 1/6 - ¼-inch headspace.
6. Exhaust by heating the filled cans by steam or over boiling water to an internal temperature of 85oC and seal.
7. Process at 15-psi for 90 minutes in cans, 10-psi for 120 min. in bottles.
8. Cool and, wash cans to remove grease and grime.
9. Dry and label.


SMOKED TAHONG IN OIL

Raw Material Equipment, Utensils & Supplies:

mussel (tahong) meat weighing scale, 10-kg capacity
vegetable oil plastic basin
refined salt steamer
stove
bistay or titay (or improvised chicken wire)
charcoal (or firewood)
smokehouse (½ drum)

Procedure:

1. Thoroughly clean mussels to remove seaweeds, debris and byssus or horny tufts of threads growing out from the base of the foot.
2. Soak in water for 1-2 hours to allow mussels to expel sand and wastes (depuration).
3. Steam for 10-15 minutes to open shells.
4. Cool to temperatures that can allow handling and shucking of mussels. Remove the remaining byssus.
5. Smoke mussel meat for 30 minutes or until golden brown.
6. Pack smoked mussel in UGL cans or glass jars (fill-in weight for 211 x 300 can and 8-oz. glass jar is 170 grams). Add 2.5 grams refined salt and enough vegetable oil into each can or glass jar leaving ¼-inch headspace.
7. Exhaust to an internal temperature of 82oC and seal.
8. Process in a pressure cooker or a retort for one (1) hour at 121oC (15 psi) or 1½ hours at 116oC (10 psi).
9. Cool cans under running water. Allow the glass jars to air-cool.
10. Wash glass jars and cans to remove grease and grime, and dry.
11. Code, label and store at room temperature.

OTHER FISH FOOD PRODUCTS

FISH BALLS (PHTD-BFAR*)

Raw Material:

Fresh fish - any of the following species: kalaso, dalagang bukid, labahita, shark, bidbid, torsillo and bisugo

Ingredients for ½ kg fish meat:
2 tsp salt
1 cup all-purpose flour
1 cup cornstarch
2 tbsp baking powder
½ cup iced water
¼ tsp monosodium glutamate (MSG)

Utensils:

stove turner trays
casserole colander food processor/grinder
frying pan (carajay) measuring cup weighing scale
knives measuring spoon plastic sealer
chopping board mixing bowl

Procedure:

1. Wash fish, split into butterfly fillet and eviscerate. Wash and drain.
2. Separate fish meat from skin and bones and chop finely.
3. Add salt to fish mince and mix well until pasty. Gradually add sifted mixture of flour, cornstarch, baking powder and MSG and mix well.
4. Add iced water and mix well until a thick homogenous pasty dough is obtained.

* Post-Harvest Technology Division - Bureau of Fisheries & Aquatic Resources (PHTD-BFAR)


5. Form into balls and allow to set in a bowl or basin of tap water for 2 hours or for 30-45 minutes in lukewarm (40-45°C) water.
6. Drop balls in boiling water. When balls float, they are already cooked. Check if center is cooked by cutting into half. If not, extend boiling.
7. Drain fish balls in perforated trays or colander and cool to room temperature.
8. Pack the fish balls in polyethylene bags at ¼ kg to 1 kg per pack.
9. Store the product in a chiller or freezer.


FISH QUEKIAM

Ingredients:

2 cups filleted/chopped fish (1 kg)
½ - ¾ tbsp refined salt (10-15 g)
½ cup chopped shrimps (250 g)
½ cup singkamas, chopped finely (250 g)
½ cup carrots, chopped finely (250 g)
½ cup finely chopped kintsay (200 g)
1 ½ tsp white pepper (12 g)
3 tbsp cornstarch (25 g)
6 tbsp flour (50 g)
¼ tsp MSG (5 g)
taope or panyu-panyoan*

Procedure:

1. Combine all ingredients and blend thoroughly.
2. Wrap the mixture in taope or panyu-panyoan and form into rolls [approximately 3 cm (1¼ inches) diameter and 14 cm (5½ inches) long].
3. Flash-fry (partial frying) for 1 minute. Drain. Cool and refrigerate.
4. The product is fried in vegetable oil until golden brown before serving.

* Edible film wrapper made from soybean protein.


FISH NUGGETS (NIPSC*, College of Fisheries)

Ingredients:

250 g minced fish meat INGREDIENTS FOR BATTER
¼ tsp salt 2 pcs eggs
¼ tsp white pepper 3 tbsp cake flour
¼ tsp powdered onion 2 tbsp iced water
¼ tsp granulated garlic a pinch of salt
2 pc calamansi
2 tsp soy sauce
¼ tsp vetsin (optional)
½ cup flour for dredging
1 cup breadcrumbs


* Northern Iloilo Polytechnic State College (NIPSC)

Utensils:

stove turner mixing bowl
frying pan (carajay) colander trays
knives measuring cup food processor/grinder
chopping board measuring spoon weighing scale

Procedure:

1. Clean fish and separate the meat from the bones.
2. Chop finely and blend with other ingredients.
3. Allow to set for 30 minutes.
4. Form into desired shapes/sizes. (Special molds made from cut plastic chopping boards [½-inch thick] or 'polvoron' molders maybe used.) Coat with flour, dip in batter. Roll in breadcrumbs. Flash-fry for 30 seconds.
5. Pack in polyethylene bags and freeze. To consume, deep fry fish nuggets in hot cooking oil until golden brown.


FISH HAM (BANGUS) (PHTD-BFAR)

Curing Ingredients:

1 kg bangus ½ tsp black pepper
2 tbsp brown sugar ¼ tsp prague powder
1 tsp vetsin 1 - 1½ tsp gin
1 tbsp salt 1 tsp ham spice

Utensils:

weighing scale knife
measuring cups chopping board
measuring spoons

Procedure:

1. Split the fish at the back from head to tail.
2. Clean bangus, remove scales, internal organs, and trim tails and fins.
3. Mix curing ingredients and rub in the bangus well and store in a closed container in the refrigerator for 3 days.
4. Prepare a cooking mixture of the following ingredients for every kilogram of bangus:
¾ cup beer
1 pc laurel
1 cup sugar
1 cup pineapple juice
½ cup water
5. Boil the mixture and cool.
6. Soak cured bangus in the cooking mixture for 2 hours or longer.
7. Drain and fry until light brown at medium heat.
8. Serve while hot.

SQUID BALLS (PHTD-BFAR)

Ingredients:

1 kg minced squid meat
2 tbsp salt
1 cup cornstarch
1 cup all-purpose flour
4 tbsp sugar
1½ tbsp chopped garlic
5 tbsp chopped onion
1 tsp monosodium glutamate (MSG)/vetsin
3 tbsp iced water

Utensils:

stove turner trays
casserole colander food processor/grinder
frying pan (carajay) measuring cup weighing scale
knives measuring spoon plastic sealer
chopping board mixing bowl

Procedure:

1. Wash squid, remove internal organs and heads.
2. Wash well and peel off dark skins manually after soaking in lukewarm water for 5 minutes then in cold water for another 5 minutes.
3. Grind the minced squid meat in a food grinder or processor for 10 minutes or until a smooth consistency is achieved.
4. Mix in the salt until the mixture becomes a sticky paste, slowly add other ingredients such as cornstarch, flour, sugar, garlic, onion, MSG and cold water.
5. Continue mixing and kneading for another 20 minutes to obtain a homogenous mixture.
6. Form into uniform sized balls and drop into 40oC water and allow to set for 20 minutes.
7. Drop the balls in boiling water until the balls float. Check if fully cooked up to the center.
8. Drain and allow to cool. Pack in PE bags.
9. Store in a freezer until use.
10. For consumption: deep fry for 2-3 minutes. Drain. Serve with sweet and sour sauce.


SQUID RINGS (PHTD-BFAR)

Ingredients:

1 cup sliced squid
1 tsp refined salt
¼ tsp baking power
vetsin or monosodium glutamate (optional)
¼ kg cornstarch

Utensils:

weighing scale measuring cup & spoon carajay
knife mixing bowl ladle
chopping board colander stove

Procedure
1. Wash fresh squid, remove internal organs and heads.
2. Wash well and peel off dark skins manually after soaking in lukewarm water (40°-50°C) for 5 minutes then in cold ice water for another 5 minutes.
3. Slice squid cross-sectionally into rings and add salt, baking powder and vetsin. Mix thoroughly.
4. Roll in cornstarch until well coated.
5. Deep fry in pre-heated cooking oil until light golden brown.
6. Cool to room temperature and pack in polypropylene (PP) bags of at least 0.002-inch thickness.


SPICY and CRISPY DILIS (PHTD-BFAR)

Ingredients:

¼ kg dried dilis
1 pc chicken egg
7 tbsp cornstarch
¼ cup brown sugar
½ tbsp salt
½ - 1 tsp sili labuyo
cooking oil

Utensils:

mixing bowls measuring cup turner
fork skillet colander
measuring spoons stove trays
weighing scale

Procedure
1. Select clean dried dilis and place in a mixing bowl.
2. In another bowl, beat egg thoroughly and blend in all the seasoning.
3. Add cornstarch and mix well until all lumps are gone. (It is best if the batter is chilled prior to use.)
4. Pour mixture over dried dilis and stir until each fish is completely coated. (Do not allow mixture to stand very long or else the fish will stick together when fried.)
5. Deep fat fry until golden brown.
6. Place in a colander to remove excess fat.
7. Allow to cool at room temperature.
8. Pack in polypropylene (PP)/polyethylene (PE) bags of at least 0.002-inch thickness.

LIST OF SUPPLIERS OF INGREDIENTS AND EQUIPMENT

1. SIN KIAN HENG
196 Palanca St., Manila
Tel. nos.: 733-2131; 733-6381; 733-2129; 733-6376
Fax: 733-6371
(for pressure cooker, can sealer and utensils)

2. KILLION MERCHANDISING
40 Orozco St., Manila
Tel. no. : 733-8221; 733-7033; 733-2093
(for ingredients)

3. MGM FOOD & COMMODITIES CORPORATION
61 Mariveles St., Mandaluyong City
Tel. nos.: 532-2044; 532-3633; 533-3057
(for flexible packages and ingredients)

4. SAINTS & BRANCH
545 Franciscan St., Sta. Ana Village, Sunvalley, ParaƱaque
Tel. nos.: 821-5325; 821-5328
(for glass jars and caps)

5. GRAMMIX FOOD INTERNATIONAL INC.
854 G. Apacible St., Manila
Tel. nos.: 525-3080
(for curing ingredients)

6. SPICES AND FOODMIX
Nutrition Foundation of the Philippines
Ultima Entrepinoy Forum Center
107 E. Rodriguez Sr. Ave., QC
Tel. nos.: 411-1349; 742-0826
(for curing ingredients)

7. TAIWAN MACHINERIES DISPLAY AND TRADE CENTER
27 Guava Road, Malabon
Tel. nos.: 361-71-02, 363-01-66, 363-01-67, 363-01-88
(for equipment)

8. WILSHINE ENTERPRISE COMPANY
6 McDonough St., Paranaque City
Tel. nos.: 852-1179; 852-1184
(for vacuum gauge, dial thermometer, can seam micrometer, can sealers)

9. SAN MIGUEL GLASS PLANT
45 Muelle dela Industria, Del Pan, Binondo, Manila
Tel. nos.: 242-8641 to 60
Fax: 632-3093
(for glass jars and metal caps)

10. ASIA Brewery, Inc.
6th Flr. Allied Bank Center, Ayala Ave., Makati City
Tel. nos.: 816-3421 to 25
Fax: 810-2711
(for glass jars and metal caps)

11. Oriental Tin Can & Metal Sheet Mfg.
64 Gen. Luis St., Sitio Kapre Brgy. Nagkaisang Nayon
Area IX, Dist II, Quezon City
Tel. nos.: 936-5339
Fax: 936-8507
(for cans)

12. Metro Container Corp.
1196 Sto. Rosario St., Mapulang Lupa, Malinta, Valenzuela City
Tel. nos.: 645-8304; 983-9551
Telefax: 983-9558
(for cans)

13. General Metal Container Corp. of the Phils.
60 Gen. Luis St., Bo. Capri, Novaliches, Quezon City
Tel. nos.: 936-1495
Telefax: 938-0945 to 46
(for cans)

14. Philippine Aerosol Container
Cor. Reliance & Broxtom Sts., Pasig City
Tel. nos.: 631-1775 to 84
(for cans)


Source: DOST, photo courtesy of coconutstudio.com

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