How to make wine from banana, calumpit, citrus, duhat, guava, mango, orange, passion fruits, and pineapple


Fruit are highly perishable food and, therefore, have to be either consumed fresh or processed for future use. They can be preserved by fermentation, dehydration, canning or bottling, and freezing. As earlier mentioned, the method depends on the kind, variety, quality, and degree of ripeness of the fruits. Irregular-shaped and off-size fruits are suitable for processing into sweet products, bottled purees, and juices or for fermenting.


Fermentation preserves food through the metabolic activities of selected groups of microorganisms. During the process, compounds such as lactic acid, acetic acid, and alcohol are developed and result in a more or less, stable food form. Similarly, fermentation makes food more nutritious as dietary source of proteins, vitamins and minerals. Common fermentation methods are pickling, wine-making and nata-making.

Wine- making

Wine is fermented product usually associated with grapes. However, wines can also be made from other fruits, berries, and flowers. Of the native fruits, banana, bignay, calumpit, citrus, duhat, guava, mango, orange, passion fruits, and pineapple have been used. Many wines are characterized by a delicate flavor and aroma specific to the type of fruit used.

When yeast is added to fruit juice or any sugary solution, it begins to multiply vigorously. Complex chemical processes follow whereby sugar is converted to alcohol and other compounds.

Alcohol content varies from 8-16%, depending on the initial sugar content and the strain of wine yeast. Wine yeast strains are specific to the type of fruit in order to produce high alcohol and good flavor. Brewer's yeast can also be used.

Wine is stored or aged after fermentation. During aging, slow oxidation which alter the characteristics of the wine progressively takes place. The alcohol and acid present in the wine react to form esters that provide the delicate aroma, flavor, and bouquet of well-aged wines.

Depending on the alcohol and sugar content, wines are classified as table, dessert, and sparkling. Table wine contains 10-14 alcohol and 3-7% sugar. Dessert wine contains 17-20% alcohol and 10-12% sugar. Sparkling wine contains carbon dioxide and effervesces well.

General directions

1. Extract the juice by mashing or crushing. Apply pressure when using fleshy and juicy fruits such as cashew and pineapple. With soft fruits, peel them and add water before extracting the juice. For citrus, squeeze out the juice either by hand or by presser. Boil with water all hard or dry fruits, such as guava and santol.

2. Filter or strain the juice to remove any solid particles. Add 200-300 ppm sodium or potassium metabusulfite to prevent contamination and browning. Place the treated juice in a sealed container and keep it for 24 hours. In case the metabisulfite solution is not available, simply boil the juice.

3. Before fermenting, test the acid and sugar contents of the treated juicer or must. for testing acid content, use pH paper. To produce dry wines, set pH at 3-4. For sweet wines, use pH 3.5-5.5. Adjust pH with juice or citrus or unripe fruit, or dilute with water.

To test sugar content, use the hand refractometer. A reading of 20 B is good for dry wine and 25 for sweet wine.

4. Add yeast to the must. Commercial dry-wine yeast starters can be used, but good results can be obtained with pure cultures of wine yeast in agar slants. Fleischman's or baker's yeast can be used, but it imparts a "bready" aroma and flavor to the wine.

5. Stir the mixture thoroughly and transfer it to fermentation containers. Enamel, floss, wooden oak, earthenware, and plastic containers are suitable for winemaking. Wide-necked vessels are preferable for pulp-fermentation to facilitate removal of pulp and cleaning. Narrow-necked containers are best suited for juice fermentation and storage, since they can be sealed easily with a lock or rubber bung.

6. Seal the fermentation container with a water valve or water bung. When bubbles form, it means that fermentation is going on. The rate at which gas bubbles through the bung indicates the rate of fermentation.

Do not allow the temperature to drop below 19 degrees C or exceed 28 degrees C.

7. After four or more weeks, the absence of gas indicates the end of the fermentation.

8. Siphon the clear liquid into sterile bottles or oak barrels. In moving the jar, be careful not disturb the sediment. Fill the bottle or barrel with semi-clear wine 1.5-2.5 cm below the cover, so that only a minimum amount of air is allowed inside.

9. Age the wine for one year or longer. Longer aging results in more mature and mellow wines. If sediments form, transfer wine into another bottle.

10. After aging, the wine should be clear. When it is not, use clarifying agents, such as egg whites, gelatin, milk, bentonite or powdered charcoal. Add and stir the agent. Let it stand for 7-10 days, and filter the wine into clean, properly sterilized bottles. Seal bottles with cork.

11. Store wine with drive-corks in horizontal position. Place the bottles in a cool, well-ventilated, and dark place.

Source: DOST

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