Various Preserved Vegetables


CANNED MUSHROOM

The mushroom commonly used for canning is the I. volvacea species. It looks like a tiny umbrella and its cap is white, occasionally tinged with gray, smooth in texture. This is the most popular mushroom not only in the Philippines, but in the entire Southeast Asian Region. Its growth is well suited to the tropical climate. It is best harvested at button stage and this is approximately on the 11th to the 14th day after spawn planting into bed. These, however, have a relatively short shelf life due to its high moisture content (85 to 95%). To preserve the produce for longer period the best known method applied is canning with 2% brine as medium. The canned product retains its fresh quality and has a shelf life of one year.

The technology for the production of canned mushroom involves the following steps:

1. Sorting for sizes and to remove buttons that do not meet the right specifications for canning; i.e., too mature, too dark or spoiled.
2. Trimming which involves cutting off portions of stem that contain soil or dirt and rather tough.
3. Washing in running tap water to remove all sorts of adhering dirt and clean up the buttons.
4. The buttons are then blanched in boiling water for 3-5 minutes prior to filling into cans with 2% brine.
5. Exhausting of the half-sealed is done to remove all entrapped gases.
6. Sealing is done with the use of an automatic can sealer and this is followed by sterilization at 1-psi for 17 minutes.
7. Cooling under running tap water follows and then the cans are wiped dry and stored.


SAYOTE-PIÑA JAM

1. Peel the sayote slice into thin strips.
2. Peel rare ripe pineapple, remove eyes and chop finely. Crush the fruit (piña in cans can be used as substitute for fresh ones).
3. Mix one part of sliced sayote to one part crushed pineapple.
4. Add ¾ cups refined sugar for every cup of mixture, 1½ tsp. kalamansi juice for every 4 cups of sayote-piña mixture, and stir thoroughly.
5. Boil in a kettle with constant stirring until the mixture is thick.
6. Hot-pack in bottles and seal immediately.


EGGPLANT JAM

1. Boil the eggplant, peel then mash.
2. Add 1½ cups refined sugar to ¾ cups mashed eggplant. Put vanilla flavoring and one tbsp. kalamansi juice for every cup of eggplant puree.
3. Add food color just to retain the color of eggplant.
4. Cook for 30 minutes until right consistency of jam (when it can be scooped out) is attained.
5. Hot-pack in bottles. Cool and store.


MIXED VEGETABLE PICKLES

Ingredients:
green papaya red & green pepper
carrot cauliflower
singkamas stringbeans
small onions salt
cucumber (jerkins) sugar
winged bean vinegar
alum

Procedure:

1. Wash vegetables very well, peel and cut into desired sizes.
2. Wash again, drain and pack in previously sterilized culture jars.
3. Prepare the brine solution* just enough to cover the vegetables.
4. Measure the brine solution added to each jar. Pour the brine solution into jars with vegetables. Cover with plastic.
5. The following day, add salt (2½ tbsp. salt/4 cups brine used). Add the same amount of salt for three (3) consecutive days.
6. Wash vegetables until desired saltiness is attained.
7. Drain and pack into culture jars.
8. Pour cooled (previously boiled) sweet-sour solution (sss)**, enough to cover the vegetables. Cover jars with plastic.
9. Add sugar (5 tbsp. sugar/4 cups sss used) the following day. Add same amount of sugar for three (3) consecutive days. It is necessary to add the sugar gradually at intervals for several days to allow the product to absorb it slowly to prevent shriveling.
10. Harvest mixed vegetables pickles.
a. Pack (well-arranged) in previously sterilized preserving jars.
b. Boil sweet-sour solution.
c. Pour hot sweet-sour solution previously strained through clean cloth into jars with pickled vegetables.
d. Remove air bubbles, seal and process.

* Brine Solution:
Dissolve 1/3 cup salt into 4 cups water. Boil, cool and strain. Add ¼ tsp. alum.

** Sweet-Sour Solution (sss):
2/3 C sugar
3 C vinegar
1 C water

Mix the above ingredients together, boil and cool.


DRIED CARROTS

1. Wash fresh firm carrots, then peel by using vegetable peeler to obtain smoother surface.
2. Cut into cubes.
3. Steam blanch for 2-3 minutes in a steamer.
4. Spread singly in wire trays and dry in a forced draft drier set at 60±5oC for at least 5-7 hours or until it feels dry (with the finger).
5. Pack in clean, dry bottles, seal immediately and store in a dry place.


DRIED POTATO

1. Select fresh potatoes and wash thoroughly to remove adhering dirt, then peel.
2. Slice or cube the peeled potatoes.
3. Dip in boiling water for 2 minutes, or steam-blanch for 4 minutes in a steamer.
4. Dry in a forced draft drier set at 60oC for 8 hours.
5. When thoroughly dry, allow to cool for a few minutes, then place in a dry container, and store in a dry place.


DRIED SNAP BEANS

1. Wash snap beans and remove unnecessary trimmings, then cut into desired sizes.
2. Steam-blanch for 5-8 minutes.
3. Place in a wire tray and dry in a forced draft drier at 68 - 71oC for 5-6 hours.
4. Allow to cool then pack in a dry clean bottle and seal. Store in a dry place.


DRIED GINGER

1. Wash fresh whole ginger and peel by scraping off the skin with a knife.
2. Slice into 1/8-inch thick pieces.
3. Dip in metabisulfate solution (1 - 1¼ teaspoon solution sodium metabisulfate per liter of water) for 5-10 minutes.
4. Spread singly on wire trays, then dry in a forced draft drier at 63-66oC until the slices are crisp and dry.
5. Pack in air-tight sterilized bottles and store in a dry place.


DRIED SINGKAMAS

1. Wash the singkamas thoroughly to remove surface dirt. Peel the singkamas and cut into thin slices.
2. Place the sliced singkamas in cloth bag and dip for 3 minutes in a boiling brine solution (prepared by mixing 1 cup coarse salt to 12 cups water).
3. Spread the slices in single layer on the tray and dry in a forced draft drier set at 60oC for 7 hours or under the sun.
4. Place dried singkamas in a covered container and store in dry place.
5. To use, soak the dried singkamas overnight before cooking.


DRIED CABBAGE

1. Wash the cabbage thoroughly in running water to remove surface dirt.
2. Remove outer leaves, cut into quarters and remove the core.
3. Shred 1/8-inch thick, then steam blanch for 5-8 minutes.
4. Spread singly in wire trays, then dry in forced draft drier at 66oC for 7-8 hours or until the cabbage is dry and looks rough and leathery.
5. Pack in clean, dry containers and seal immediately and store in a dry place.


DRIED ONIONS

1. Peel the onions and slice into 1/8-inch thick pieces.
2. Prepare 3% salt solution and dip the sliced onions for 2 hours.
3. Dry in a forced draft drier at 60oC for at least 7-8 hours.
4. Allow it to cool then pack in a dry container. Seal tightly.


DRIED STRINGBEANS

1. Wash string beans and remove unnecessary trimmings. Cut into desired sizes.
2. Steam blanch for 5-8 minutes.
3. Spread singly on wire trays and dry in a forced draft drier at 71oC until the beans become brittle.
4. Pack in clean, dry container and seal at once. Store in a dry place.

Source: http://mis.dost.gov.ph; photo courtesy of http://www.openrussia.ru; http://www.sks-bottle.com; http://www.pbs.org

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